Technological equipment is the most important factor for the successful implementation of technical progress in mechanical engineering. More than 25 million special machine tools are used in industry. The cost of manufacturing tooling closer to the cost of production of machine tools. The task of increasing the efficiency and quality of tooling has become one of the most important national economic problems.
For the modern stage of development of mechanical engineering characterized by the rapid growth of new types of products. Currently, the change of new models of machines, equipment, devices, instruments occurs much faster than 10 ... 15 years ago. Accelerating the development of new products and reducing the cycle of its production, as a rule, requires the creation of new devices, because when the product range of manufactured machines and devices changes, special equipment becomes unsuitable and has to be designed and manufactured anew each time.
Significant labor and material costs are determined by the fact that technological equipment has an impact on labor productivity, quality and reduction in terms of mastering the production of new products.
The task of increasing labor productivity in mechanical engineering cannot be solved only by the commissioning of even the most advanced equipment. The change of models of machines in production occurs on average in 6 ... 8 years, therefore, along with high-performance modern machines, machines of outdated models are also used.
Technological equipment helps to increase productivity in mechanical engineering and focuses production on intensive methods of its management. At the enterprises of mechanical engineering up to 90% of organizational and technological measures aimed at ensuring the growth of labor productivity of machine workers is associated either with a change in designs or with the manufacture of new types of tools and devices.
The use of technological equipment, especially of a retrofitted type, not only provides, but also expands the technological capabilities of both universal and CNC machines, flexible production modules and robotic systems.
The increase in labor productivity in the application of technological equipment is provided by the following:
- The reduction of the auxiliary time for the installation and securing of the workpiece in the fixture;
- Intensification of cutting conditions by increasing the strength, stiffness and vibration resistance of devices.
- Reducing the amount of plumbing work when assembling products through the use of technological equipment of increased accuracy.
- Expansion of multi-machine maintenance of CNC machines by processing a group of parts installed in a multi-station fixture. Multiple maintenance is applied, as a rule, on operations that have a long cycle, carried out in automatic mode. In the manufacture of parts with a short processing time, it is advisable to use multi-seat devices on CNC machines.
To reduce the auxiliary time it is necessary:
- o apply mechanized drives for fixing the workpiece;
- create comfortable working conditions for the machine operator by reducing various distractions;
- ensure the optimum response time of the mechanized clamps. The average response time of the hydraulic drive actuator is 1 s. However, as a result of various factors, the response time of special clamps reaches 5 s;
- apply the "pendulum" processing method, in which the installation time of the workpiece and the removal of the finished part is combined with the main technological time;
- reduce the time to install the cutting tool by attaching special parts to the tool.
The latter are widely used in large-scale and mass production. The duration of the manufacturing cycle of equipment of medium complexity reaches 75 days. The increase in operating modes of modern machines and mechanisms, their quality, reliability and durability is associated with stricter requirements for the accuracy of machine parts. Precision machining largely depends on machine tooling. When processing the workpiece using the test pass method, the accuracy of the part depends mainly on the qualifications of the workers. The use of an automatic method for obtaining dimensions and mechanized fixing of workpieces in a device almost completely eliminates the influence of the skill level of the worker on the machining accuracy. The quality of parts, in this case, largely depends on the machine tool, its accuracy, its ability to maintain it during processing, the place of application and the direction of the clamping force, etc.